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Working Papers or "Veniam Pro Laudo Peto"
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Love and Justice and other topics.....

Thursday, March 23, 2006
+JMJPT+
Praised be Jesus Christ!! Now and Forever!!
Below is a position paper I had to write for my ethics final a few weeks ago. We had to write on the relationship between Love and Justice and then discuss five seperate issues in corporate ethics picked by the instructor and discuss problems and ethics in each. There was one other paper which I may or may not publish on this forum as it may be a bit controversial in nature- I think my theology in it is good but the subject matter I was required to write on is at issue.
I am on to another course and that is what I will be working on this weekend. Please say a few extra prayers for me. All the hard work is worth it if I can please Our Divine Master and bring someday souls into His Heart which burns with love for us all.
In His Merciful Heart,
Ed

Part I:

"Christian Ethics and the relationship between Love and Justice"



"Justice is Love serving God Alone[1]".

The crisis of culture, any culture, is finding the perfect balance between Love and Justice (Truth). It is my belief that these two poles find perfect harmony only in the Cross of Our Lord Jesus Christ. It is in the Holy Cross that the Christian must look to find solutions to achieving balance between Love[2] and Truth which can be carried into applications involving ethical dilemmas in the workplace, in homes, in societies, in governments, between divergent peoples and with each other. God is Love[3]. God is Truth[4]. God is Just and Merciful[5]. To find the proper position for the ethical application for the Christian I believe we must first look at the nature of God[6], within my very limited intellect and understanding then we can find the solution to any ethical dilemma facing us.

God is Truth and God is Love[7] and the most perfect witness to humankind of that unity of perfect Love and perfect Truth is in the Holy Cross[i] of Our Lord Jesus Christ.[8] Just as one can not separate[ii] the humanity of Our Lord from His Divinity[9] one can not separate Divine Truth from Divine Love. Flowing from God's Truth and Love united perfectly and eternally is Divine Mercy and Divine Justice[10]. So too, Divine Justice without Divine Mercy would not exist with the perfect and eternal Divine Love and Divine Truth. In fact Justice and Mercy are so closely woven together that one can not take away from one without adding to the other and visa versa. For True Justice can not exist with out Mercy and true Mercy can not exist without Justice. Divine Mercy can not exist without Divine Justice for to be Merciful one must have a Judge who is Merciful and thereby Justice. Flowing forth from His Divine Mercy[11] comes salvation and expiation for the sins and offences to Divine Justice ergo offences against Divine Love and Divine Truth. Divine Mercy is a person- the Second Person of the Blessed Trinity[12] Our Lord Jesus Christ. Yet, Mercy without Justice for those to who reject God's Mercy[13] is not merciful or Just to those whom He has forgiven. In other words, there must be a Judgment dealt out with equity and Truth for all of humankind the wicked and the righteous in order for True Justice to be rendered. Man on his own account can never satisfy Divine Justice on his own it is only through the Sacred Blood of the spotless Lamb of God that satisfaction for the sins and offences can wash our robes and create us anew. For those though that reject Divine Mercy[14] alas they can only face the eternal Divine Judgment alone with no way to atone for their sins. God's Love demands Justice and God’s Truth demands Mercy. We must look to the Holy Cross[iii] lest we forget the demands of Love and Truth and our responsibility to carry both out in all ethical and daily life decisions.

What happens in societies, workplaces and individuals when Truth is not administered with Love is that people become legalistic and strictly dogmatic and fail to recognize the Sacred Dignity of the individual. Also opportunities to treat others mercifully as God has treated us all so very mercifully are not met. We furthermore miss opportunities to evangelize the world around us by being so dogmatic in our approach that a potential opportunity for conversion in another is missed. We then risk placing ourselves in the precarious position of being the judge and being judged by those same exacting rules. We must act mercifully and lovingly to our neighbors in the workplace, in families and in society while not compromising the Truth of our faith in Jesus Christ. Alas the only true balance between Truth and Love can be found upon the Holy Cross and in God Himself.

Conversely though when Love is administered without Truth then individuals, corporations, institutions, societies and even Churches face situations in which the "dictatorship of relativism"[15] takes hold. No position is can be completely held as Truth for to do so would compromise the pseudo false love of neighbor which does not want to dare offend out of a notion that –that is somehow more loving[16]. So individuals and groups are allowed to do most anything the individual decide is right rather than speaking the Truth with Love and establishing laws and rules to be formed around those Divine Truths. Love does not mean not correcting a pattern of behavior or even an individual action or person that is living in error or evil. In fact true love demands[17] bold and sometimes painful honesty regarding the evils of the day especially in Christian Ethics. Churches are guilty too many times of swaying in the breeze of the winds of public opinion in order to boost membership, not loose contributions or donations or not face persecution. Our Lord Jesus Christ is the same yesterday, today and forever and as The Word born Incarnate[18] neither do any of the Divine Laws that He gives us in the Sacred Scripture. We need not wonder about whether we are Christians will face opposition from the world because of Our Lord and the Law of God we know from Christ Jesus Himself that we will. I remember reading the words of John Henry Newman saying that if the Church is not persecuted She is not proclaiming Christ Jesus[19]. No one likes to face persecution of any sort. We all want to be liked by everyone the Christian though must proclaim Our Lord Jesus Christ whether convenient or inconvenient. I ran across a quotation recently which I think is appropriate.

"We live in an age which places a very strong emphasis on tolerance, mutuality, and acceptance. I have heard repeatedly over the years that "Jesus never judged, condemned or excluded anyone." I wonder if Peter would agree as the words of Jesus, "Get behind me you Satan," rang in his ears. I wonder if the Scribes and the Pharisees would agree as they rankled at being called whitened sepulchers or broods of vipers. I wonder if those who heard Jesus say, "Whoever leads one of these little ones astray, it would be better if he had a millstone tied around his neck and be cast into the sea," nodded approval and said, "He is so tolerant and accepting." This verse is included, virtually verbatim, in each of the three Synoptic Gospels, Matthew, Mark and Luke. I certainly have no qualms about the image of Jesus as kind and gentle, or with Jesus’ own description of Himself as "meek and humble of heart." I see and appreciate the great appeal of one of the most recent devotions fostered so powerfully by our late Holy Father, Pope John Paul II, that of Divine Mercy. Each of these attractive and reassuring aspects of Jesus needs to be remembered. These are aspects of Jesus that we cannot afford to forget and to which we can and must cling. At the same time we do well not to forget that the Lord is also a "God of power and might." Jesus stood up to the guards who came to arrest him in the Garden of Gethsemane. He stood courageously before Pilate. He bore His cross with noble, unflinching determination. He is not a God of weakness. He is strong and He defends His people. This accounts for the strong language used when the “little ones” of His flock are put at risk.

In our "compromising age" we are loath to name something too strongly. If we do, we are accused of harshness, judgmentalism, perhaps arrogance, certainly intolerance and possibly pharisaism. While it is always necessary to speak the truth with love, the Church also believes and teaches that it is also necessary to speak the truth with strength. It is necessary to defend truth and not be too quick to rationalize, justify or excuse misleading teachings or teachers. There is a point at which passive "tolerance" allows misleading teachings to be spread and propagated, thus confusing or even misleading the faithful about the truths of the Church. There is a very strong word, which still exists in our Church, which most of us are too "gentle" to use. The word is "heresy." We perhaps think that heresy is a thing of the past. We think perhaps of the Arian heresy or the Pelagian heresy or the Manichaen heresy. We might even maintain that there are no longer any heretics because that conjures up images of inquisitions and burnings at the stake. I do not, in any way, seek to validate or justify any kind of "vigilante" theology, but we do need strong words to combat erroneous and fallacious teaching."[20] + Most Rev. Robert Vasa, Bishop of Baker (Oregon), February 17, 2006







We must deal with others and with ethical dilemmas in the light of Who God Is and the demands He can justly require us. We can not look properly at any decsion involving ethics with out doing so with one eye firmly upon the Holy Cross then in light of The Eternal Truth and Eternal Love[21] we can make any proper ethical decsion needed. God’s has established the framework in His Commandments and we must deliver that Truth upon the carriage of Love. Love has a price and that price is in the Truth of the Cross. If we hold fast to who God is and what He demands of us then all of our interactions especially in ethical decisions will be made much easier. I began this essay with a quote from St Augustine on Justice and Love and I will end this with another Doctor of the Catholic Church -St. Therese of Lisieux on love and which covers the responsibility to Divine Truth by the soul. For we only have to be faithful to His Truth and remain in His Love.



“On the evening of Love, speaking without parable,

Jesus said: “If anyone wishes to love me

All his life, let him keep my Word.

My Father and I will come to visit him.

And we will make his heart our dwelling.

Coming to him, we shall love him always.

We want him to remain, filled with peace,

In our Love….”[22]















































































Part II:

Christian Ethics in advertising



Applying Christian Ethics as I have stated in the previous part of this paper to advertising requires that we treat all concerned with both Love and Truth[23]. The application of Christian Ethos to advertising must applied to the companies who are advertising their products, the employees of various companies and advertising agencies, to the consumer, and to society in general to name a few. I will attempt to apply the Christian Ethos to the various groups as I have listed here as succinctly as possible.

Companies which wish to advertise their products or services must deal with employees and consumers in an ethical manner. Companies should insure to all means possible that employees and contractors are treated with dignity and respect to pay a just wage for work. This should be done not only because "it is the right way to do things" but also because it makes good business sense. In their relationship to consumers companies need to treat each client with dignity and of a person of value regardless of the size of the purchase or the contract. This creates some of the best free advertisement possible word of mouth and recommendations. If a product or service is defective then it needs to be replaced or compensated for so as to treat the consumer with respect. Consumers should further be treated with respect by receiving quality products and services for a fair market value. Consumers also have the right to expect that their product or service was not brought to them through unethical practices such as child labor or anything of the sort. Consumers also have the right to be able to shop around for products and services in a fair and ethical market place so; monopolies should never be allowed as they tend to treat consumers unethically.
Advertising agencies should never play down to the lowest common denominator in sales tactics which all too frequently in lust. To treat the potential consumer with dignity requires that advertising strategies do not violate morality and decency. There are ways with modern technology to give presentations which do not violate the dignity of all people who will be listening to or viewing an advertisement which do not result in lude behavior or immoral messages being given[24]. Lest we lead a little one astray we should conduct advertising campaigns which do not violate basic moral ethics. Advertisements which violate decency should never be considered. Advertising agencies can be truthful in advertising about the product that they are promoting. Advertising agencies can be just by not promoting products which violate basic moral behavior. Advertising agencies can be loving by remembering that consumers and children will view their advertisements so immoral conduct is not allowed for the sake of those children. Advertising agencies can treat all consumers and potential consumers with love and truth by not promoting products which are at best substandard or harmful to the health of consumers. Sometimes to insure the most ethical standards are followed products or services may need to be rejected for the sake of the people who will use them. Agencies must realize that the financial ends or compensation do not justify the means by presentation if those means are by way of promotion of immorality or evil.
Responsibility to and of consumers and society. Christian consumers make up the largest demographic of all potential consumers in the United States yet frequently their basic moral ethos is violated by companies and advertisers. Companies doing business and agencies responsible for advertisements have a responsibility to their largest customer to treat them in business relations and detriments with respect and dignity whether the company is Christian or not. Far too often though little respect is paid to the rights of the Christian in the production of offensive ads or in the promotion of products which violate Divine Law[25]. Christians in the interest of being loving fail to speak out against immorality in advertising or for just a lack of concern. Christians should speak out through letter writing campaigns and most of all with their hard earned dollars to not purchase products or services from companies which violate Divine Law. Being a Christian in any age is difficult and especially in a time when God's Law is constantly being questioned and a bombardment of the senses violate the dignity of all peoples and especially that of children. Christian parents and singles must speak for the voiceless children who are being molested by images and concepts of debauchery. I further ponder that it is the problem of Luke warmness[26] within the soul of individual Christians who do not raise to some extent their prophetic voices against the tide of evil that pervades many media and by default advertisements. I also wonder if not the Christian avoid the conflict of an issue such as this to avoid persecution and there by denying Christ Jesus by sins of omission. If we believe firmly in the Divine Truths[27] then why do we not live that out by word and deed for our sake and the sake of others?Christians in large part bear much of the responsibility for a constant degradation of the advertising media for they had and have the responsibility to speak out with voices and consumer dollars. If we as the Children of the God [28]of Love and Truth do not even say something in opposition to be the voice of moral ethics and the Voice of God to the world then who will- certainly not the world or it’s prince.


In my view responsible Christian ethics in advertisement begins at home with the Christian who must speak out against the tide of evil. Then as each soul raises his or her voice with Love and Truth and through consumer spending proper Christian ethics will follow in the advertising world.











Part III

Product Safety and Moral Ethics



Businesses should exercise prudence[29] and diligence to insure that products do not in anyway cause harm to consumers. This should be done to show respect and love to our neighbor who will be purchasing the product. If a product is not tested properly and prudence exercised and harm comes to the consumer then those who have the responsibility of releasing said product are at the very least culpable for the sin of not loving our neighbor. This does not even calculate the tragedy of when death occurs due to lack of product safety which I feel results in the culpability[30] to not killing another. It is impossible to calculate all potential hazards with a given product not to mention misuses. However, if to the best knowledge of the product maker’s potential known hazards are avoided and adequate labeling is given in prudence and in truth and unforeseen injury results then it behooves the business to remove and fix the problem before any potential reissuance of the product to the consumer world. Extremes in insuring product safety can be seen to both ends of the spectrum. Products are held in production and research while costly and non prudential tests are conducted which drives up the cost to the consumer and there by making consumers suffer under greater financial hardship- which is not charitable. Conversely products are rushed through production with little or no standards applied to insure the reasonable safety and use of the product- this also shows little love for the consumer.

It is my understanding of sin[31] that for a mortal sin to take place three conditions[32] must be met. They are 1. Serious matter in other words does it violate Divine Law.

2. Knowledge or firm belief that the act is wrong- i.e. a sin.

3. Full consent of the will.

In application to product safety if we apply these three tenants to unsafe products an example could be given to assign culpability of the injury or death upon the company or its employees. A company releases a new toy which causes the harm to children by its use. Investigation shows that this toy showed flaws while in production and no or very poor product testing was carried out by the company. Further investigation shows that some employees saw or were aware of the hidden dangers but either did not speak out or were silenced. Despite warnings of hazards by product research persons or other employees even a few warnings the product is released and injury and/ or death result by its use or obvious known misuse. Then I feel both the company and each employee who was aware of this hazard have violated Christian ethics and even Divine Law[33] in how we are to relate to others. Furthermore, the individuals who had said knowledge and released an unsafe product are more than likely guilty of serious (grave) sin[34] if the conditions set above have been met. Alas, institutions and companies will not stand judgment before God but the people within those institututions and companies will for their actions or lack of actions that harm others that they could have avoided.

I think that while we should always do all we can to avoid sin[35] we should not focus or efforts or ethos on the avoidance of sin but on the commandment to love. We should not want to allow an unsafe product to be released not only because of the love we would want to exhibit to our neighbor and to God. We set down rules and laws for product safety and the testing of products to be obedient[36] to Truth. We carry out those laws and rules for product safety for Love- love of neighbor and love of God who created us all. I think if we, acting with prudence and reason, release products which are safe then we show respect to God and respect to His creatures- which we all are. If we have to (and we do) establish rules and laws to insure product safety out of the negative implementations of what violation of those standards carry and it keeps consumers safe to the best of our ability then good. If we carry out standards for product safety with due prudence for the love of neighbor and of God then it is all the more better. No product can be completely safe 100% of the time but with using the intelligence that Our Loving God has given us we do what is best to insure safety; then we have found some of that balance between Love and Truth which is fully evident in the Cross of Our Lord Jesus Christ[iv].























































Part IV:

Gender discrimination and Christian Ethics.



There are positions which men can not fill such as the role of motherhood and there are positions especially in the military or in the Church that women can not fill and I will not be addressing these or similar positions which are gender specific roles. I will however address issues concerning gender equality within the standard corporate environment for the purpose of this position paper.

Companies have the responsibility, especially Christian companies, to insure that gender differences are not hindrances to a person obtaining a position or for advancement with in an organization. Sacred Scripture tells us that God created man and male and female He created them. The sacred dignity of each individual must be tantamount to creating workplaces which are diverse to gender and give dignity to the individual person. The individual should be hired or promoted not based on gender politics but upon the qualifications of the individual. Companies, in relation to gender differences, should celebrate and promote diversity while not excluding the dignity of the individual. Companies should make reasonable accommodation for gender differences that do not in anyway lessen the dignity of any worker due to his or her gender.

Gender discrimination further carries itself out through environments which promote lude behavior[37] by individuals and lessens the dignity or a gender minority at a workplace. Crude behavior can make a woman or a man feel discriminated against despite company policy for gender equality. Furthermore, gender specific behavior which might not be inappropriate for a single gender environment even if it is not per se sinful can when a different gender enters the work place feel discriminated against. Two examples of each are given below:

A. An office has only men working in it and the men when on break discuss health problems that are specific to male sexuality[38] in a non sinful didactic manner to help another worker who is dealing with similar health issues. In this male only environment when the matter does not lead to sinful discussion and is appropriate during break times this is fine and in fact shows that Love with Truth concept earlier discussed. However, when a female employee is brought into the mix then this same discussion should be avoided so as to not show disrespect for the dignity of the female worker. These discussions can be carried out in a non work environment later. Simply changing the topic when ever the female employee comes in the presence might risk making the female uncomfortable to the point that she feels discriminated against. So, once again, prudence which the Holy Spirit gives us needs to be exercised by all.

B. If an office has only women working in it and the women there discuss female specific health problems or assist each other with female personal hygiene issues. This again is not sinful in its own right. When a male employee enters the company though this behavior must be stopped for the reasons outlined above in the male dominated situation. Also such behavior while normal and not necessarily sinful in a group of women could lead the man to sin and therefore must be avoided.



Both of the examples outlined above are mere tips of the iceberg of potential problems that could arise with gender discrimination and there are much more obvious problems that occur but can not be treated adequately in the length of the position paper asked for.

I believe that in the workplace all efforts must be made to insure that the sacred dignity of both male and female persons are upheld lest we sin against God and further create gender bias. God created us equal in creation and in most work environments we must show that equality while upholding the differences ordained by God. The quality of the work and the integrity of the individual worker must be held up for the worker to emulate and not give bias to the gender of the worker. Gender bias occurs within business both ways many times though is more prominent and more known against women these days. Gender discrimination in the workplace and in society, with in the parameters set forth, is a grave sin against God who is Love[39] and Truth.

Gender differences must be embraced but not given bias to a particular gender. In most work places an attitude of respect and neutrality to gender- within limits- must be held up. Respect and gender neutrality in the workplace does not mean not recognizing differences but treating each individual with respect and basing hiring or promotion upon merit and not on gender. Women should be treated with great dignity and respect as daughters of the Most High God[40] while not holding their gender differences as an obstacle for true workplace equality. Women should also act as intelligent and righteous daughters of God and not lesser than or greater than their male counterparts. I was always taught by my father that a man treats a woman like a lady unless she proves herself otherwise. I would take that a step further and say that in the workplace even if a woman does not live up to the dignity[41] she was created to be she should be treated as a lady if for no other reason as it bears witness to what Our Lord would want. Along the same line women should especially in the workplace exhibit character as beloved daughters of God[42] even if in their personal life they do not act as such- to receive respect one must command respect by being deserving of respect in action, word and demeanor. Men too must be treated with respect as sons of God and should be shown respect not for their maleness but as coequals in the workplace. Men must learn to embrace their maleness while not shying away from more sensitive characteristics frequently but erroneously applied to females. Men must be treated as and carry them selves with dignity[43] as righteous intelligent sons of God in the workplace and in personal life. Each person male and female has God given dignity as individuals and each individual in the workplace must work together as coequals.[44]

In the work environment gender bias must be eliminated for it is a violation of the Divine Law. Abuses in workplace gender relations must be eradicated through constant evaluation, peer review, workplace counseling, policy changes and when necessary disciplinary action from the top to the bottom of the organization. Gender bias must be dealt with in the workplace and in society always through the lens of Divine Love and Divine Truth for any proper effective change to take place. We all both male and female alas are coequal heirs to the Salvific Love of God[45] through Our Lord Jesus Christ and

when viewed as such I feel most gender discrimination will begin to cease.



















































































Part V.

Privacy Issues and Christian Ethics



We are increasingly becoming a society of little or no personal privacy for a wide gamut of reasons. In some aspects of privacy issues society should exercise its responsibility to insure the safety and protection of her citizens. This protection covers but is not limited to the safety from harm and especially for the safety for children and vulnerable adults. This protection covers also safety from harm in the form of terrorism and criminal and foreign threats. A very delicate balance must be achieved so that over zealousness in protection does not interfere with the privacy of individuals who are afforded due process and are innocent of evil actions. Society and the individual Christian within her must carefully weigh laws and ordinances which may give far too much freedom to snoop there by violating the basic dignity of the individual.

Privacy issues in the workplace, as in society, are precarious to discern. Employers have a right to a just days work in exchange for a just day's labor. Employers have a right to insure that employees are not using or abusing communications technology for unauthorized use much less illegal or immoral use. Employers have the right especially in dealing with customer service issues to insure employees are acting properly and ethically to customers and to each other. Employers have the right to insure that employees are not treating their fellow employees with disrespect, hatred or in a manner which diminishes the dignity of the individual. Employers have the right to insure that equipment, technology or products are not illegally or immorally handled.

However, employees have the right to a basic guarantee of privacy in their private matters presuming that they are on personal or approved company time and are not illegal or immoral. Employees and individuals in society have the right to not divulge private information which has no relevance to others as long as they are not illegal or immoral.



In areas such as watching consumer purchasing to market products better companies do not have the right to collect data which in anyway places a particular product or service with a particular consumer unless those products or service violate Divine Law- in which case they should not be sold. Great care in the areas of data collection for items that contain warranties must be taken to insure that private information regarding the consumer is never shared with others and is only used for the intent that the individual has granted it. I see an infringement of my view of Christian ethics in privacy issues every time I get my haircut and am asked for my telephone number and address for a cash transaction- this is a violation of my right to privacy I feel. It is minor violations such as this that society gradually lessens the dignity of the individual by turning a individual human being into a group of statistics and buying trends that have less to do about marketing and more to do about abuse of freedom.

Little violations in privacy are becoming so wide spread that most people do not realize the impact. So, now companies and even governments are starting to use implanted computer chips on a limited basic under the guise of protection, consumer convenience, product usage data, inventory control, credit identity and even for purchases. It is not Buck Rogers' science fiction or the deluded dreams of paranoid individuals or even Christian eschatological studies[46] anymore it is reality. Numerous companies are now using computer radio frequency computer chips[47] placed in products to track usage for marketing and inventory control. The United States Army now uses the chips for inventory control in most items of a certain size or value. One company which works with home security is now using on a volunteer basis implanted radio frequency chips which are placed under the skin of their security workers.[48] Within the past several months a group of nightclubs in Europe started offering these chips to be implanted under the skin of patrons as a way that they might keep purchases and identity in check so that wallets and purses could be left home. Companies are also promoting the use of these chips in hospital nurseries to prevent kidnapping of newborns. These same chip manufactures have promoted to hospitals and nursing homes the use of the implantable chips[49] in vulnerable adults who can not easily identify their self. The implication of the complete loss of individual freedom and privacy in a societal sense is bad enough[50]. The much more sinister application[51] as it applies the Christian Eschatology is frightening to this writer and should be shouted from the rooftops of the faithful Christian, be they laity or ordained. The very slippery slope of what is private and to whom it is private must be combated against by every Christian. This writer feels based on Biblical Truth[52], countless hours in prayer and solid research of reliable secular news sources that we as a society are coming dangerously close to the fulfillment of a time[53] when all people will be required to take these silicon marks right beneath the skin.[54] This writer feels that currently we as a society will be facing a time when we might be forced to take these devices in order to prevent terrorist attack or track illegal aliens within our borders. This is not based on speculation or even Biblical Truth but on the secular 'non-biased' media outlets. Alas, only God knows the day and the time of the final confrontation. However, a clear indication of the season of iniquity is upon us. Alerting our fellow man to these obvious dangers in surrendering privacy could purchase some time for future generations. Lack of diligence[55] and of the spoken and written word in the public sector, in personal relations, in speaking to government leaders and upon the pulpits of the world will only result in a faster erosion of privacy and the eventual serious eschatological event[56] spoken of by St John.

Moving past this more serious issue the general issue of privacy in today's culture must be handled by the Christian with prudence and always through the lens of Divine Love and Divine Truth. There are definite times within the corporate world and society in general that modicum of privacy must be surrendered for the sake of others or even the individual. Each case must be looked at with discernment in the Light of Christ Jesus[57] as with any ethical dilemma. There are times when the Christian must stand firm in his or her stance to move no further in the issue of privacy or any other ethical issue. Each case must be handled both as a single item issue and as a part of the whole. It is only in the clarity of the Christian Truths and with our God given intelligence that such decisions can be reached. If we submit first and foremost to Christ Jesus[58] who is The Eternal Truth[59] and is Eternal Love Incarnate then quickly decsions are able to be made properly.





































































Part VI.

Insurance and Christian Ethics



For the purpose of this position paper and it's brevity I will address primarily the issue of applying Christian Ethics to health insurance. I am not an economist nor do I pretend to be such[60]. However, it seems to me that one of the driving forces in the enormous cost of health care today is because of insurance companies. I have heard arguments for and against a universal healthcare plan which would either completely do away with the need for health insurance companies or radically restructure them as we know them. Seeing children and the elderly who, through no fault of their own, can not afford reasonable quality health care in the day and age that we live in should bring shame to each American taxpayer and government official. There should be no reason what so ever with the great economic blessings that this country has that every man, woman and child should not have reasonable quality healthcare as a basic right. There should be no reason that while insurance company executives and shareholders become wealthier the average American family struggles to pay insurance premiums for it's self. As insurance companies make more money they support politicians who allow many times unethical practices and laws to be perpetuated and thereby feeding the cycle of fiscal and political abuse. Ethical Christian men and women, much smarter than I, must somehow come into the equation to be the courageous voice of the voiceless and the Voice of God[61] in the public forum. Until that day though there are particular items in health care as we know it that can be viewed from a Christian Ethos[62].

Equitable and reasonable insurance premiums for employed citizens based on a sliding fee scale adjustable by household size and net take home income. This issue would be a start that insurance companies and government bureaucrats could gradually make living situations easier and more ethical for all peoples[63]. I think also better safety nets in terms of health care insurance coverage would be a very ethical way for insurance companies, government and society to treat those who fall on hard times with dignity. Had it not been for health care that I received in the military and in the veterans hospitals there is no doubt that I would not be as healthy as I am today or I would be trying to get healthy while trying to pay off mountains of healthcare related debt. Somewhere along the line some government leaders decided to treat military and veterans with basic dignity in keeping with Christian Ethics. I will never cease to thank our Merciful God[64] who I love so very much for granting me my life back and doing so in a medical system that I did not incur a mountain of debt. So many people, who have never served in the military, do not have the same grace. I think this is why it is prudent in the Light [65]of the Our Lord Jesus Christ[66] to extend the same Mercy[67] to or brothers and sisters. We treat others as Christians the same way we would want others to treat us[68] regardless of religion, class, gender or life circumstances and even past sins and failings. It is only when we apply the Truth to our own behavior to those who are less fortunate and examine how we are treating our brothers and sisters that we can act with Mercy. For I feel treating others ethically is both an act of Mercy and an act of faith in the Truth in God's commandments.

A good friend of mine is an insurance fraud investigator. From what I understand most claims over a certain dollar amount or meeting some basic parameters are given to her to make an initial check to see if there are any obvious signs of fraud. It would honestly be very difficult for me to have such a position as I think it would skew my perspective on people. With my friend this is not the case in fact the opposite has happen. If she sees, by the time they come to her desk, a 45% fraudulent rate then she says that things look pretty good and society is running well. I have heard so many stories about people who fall on hard times or just become very greedy and feel they need to defraud the insurance company. This activity is obviously unethical behavior on the part of the claimant. Society ends up paying higher premiums for to cover losses and the criminal basically is responsible for two thefts- the initial theft[69] and fraud and the secondary theft[70] from the pockets of innocent people who have to pay higher premiums. We have to find a way to combat insurance fraud and theft in justice and love. I feel we also as followers of Our Lord Jesus Christ need to take steps to help eliminate the underlying causes of such actions by 'normally' good people. Providing for unemployment, health insurance benefits and family therapy to get at the root causes of the families who are suffering. No quarter should be given to allow such behavior but it the entire problem is dealt with in Love and Justice then many of these situations I have been told about can be prevented.

In closing the only solution for any ethical situation is Our Lord Jesus Christ. In fact, it is He who is the only solution for all of humankind’s problems- temporal and spiritual. I think the Christian Ethicist must first be a Christian who is not afraid to bear witness[71] for Jesus Christ[72] then an ethicist next.

+Thank you for being a witness of Our Merciful Lord and Redeemer to me- it was an honor for me.[73]



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[1] St. Augustine, circa AD 470.

[2] "Love: The One Thing needful", Parochial and Plain Sermons, #5, Sermon 23, John Cardinal Henry Newman, circa 1801-1890.

[3] 1 John 4: 16; also see "Deus Caritas Est", Pope Benedict XVI,

[4] "Veritas Splendor", Pope John Paul II, 1993; 1 Peter 1: 22, John 14: 6

[5] Eph. 2:4; 2 Cor. 1: 3; also see “Dives in Misericordia”, Pope John Paul II, 1980

[6] "On the Nature of God", St Augustine, circa AD 405.

[7] 2 Chron 6:14; 1 John 4: 16; ibid: "Deus Caritas Est";

[8] Matthew 26, 27; Mark 14: 32-72, 15; Luke 22: 39-71, 23; John 18, 19; Rev. 5: 8-14, 7: 10, 17, 12: 11

[9] "The Harmony of the Gospels", Book 1, Chapter 4, St Augustine, circa AD 470; "communicatio idiomatum", Catholic Encyclopedia, New Advent, online edition, 2006; et al.

[10] "Summa Theologica", St. Thomas Aquinas, 1st Part, Q 21, Article 4 and also supplement Q 99, Article 1, circa AD 1227; et al.

[11] Is 43:14; Rom 9:16; Rom 11:31; Rom 21:1; 2 Cor 4:1; Jude 1:21; "Dives in Misericordia", Pope John Paul II, 1980, Rome; also see "Divine Mercy in My Soul", St. Faustina Kowalska, circa 1930, Poland; et al.

[12] "On the Holy Trinity", St Gregory of Nyssa, circa AD 385 apx.

[13] Ibid.

[14] "Divine Mercy in my Soul"; "Dives in Misericordia"; et al.

[15] "Jesus Christ: The Measure of True Humanism", Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger (now Pope Benedict XVI), April 19 2005, Rome.

[16] "Relativism the Central Problem for Faith Today", Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger (now Pope Benedict XVI), Prefect of the Sacred Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, 1989, Rome.

[17] "Against Heresies", Book V, Chapter 3, St Irenaeus, circa AD 115.

[18] "On the Incarnation of The Word", St. Athanasius, circa AD 296-373.

[19] 1 Thes 5:9; 2 Tim 2:10; 2 Tim 3:15

[20] "Christ is reassuring and humble, as well as powerful, mighty", Bishop Robert Vasa, in Catholic Sentinel Newspaper, Feb. 17, 2006, Oregon.

[21] Acts 10:45; Acts 11:1-18; Acts 13:46-48; Acts 14:27; Acts 15:7-9; 2 Chron 33:12-13; et al.

[22] "Drink From the Stream: Prayers of Carmelites", compiled by Penny Hickey ocds, Ignatius Press, 2002, San Francisco, pgs 230-287.

[23] Ex 20:1-17; Dt 5:6-21; "Summa" 1:16:1; Ps 86:11; Ps 119:30; Mt 22:16; Mk 12:14; Jn 14:6; 2 Cor 4:2; "Veritas Splendor", ("The Splendor of Truth"), Pope John Paul II, 1993, Rome.

[24] "Persona Humana", On Sexual Ethics, Sacred Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, 1975, Rome; et al.

[25] Exodus 20:2-17; Leviticus 19:3, 11-18; Deuteronomy 5:1-33; Ps 86:11; Ps 119:30; Mt 22:16; Mk 12:14; Jn 14:6; 2 Cor 4:2; et al.

[26] Rev 3:17

[27] "Summa Theologica", 1st Part, Q 16, A 5, St Thomas Aquinas, AD 1227; et al.

[28] Eph 4:17

[29] Prov 1:4; Prov 8:12; Prov 8:5: Prov 15:5; Prov 19:25; et al.

[30] Ibid: "Summa", 2nd Part of the 2nd Part, Q 142, A 4; et al.

[31] Galatians 5:19-20; 1 Corinthians 6:9-10; 1 John 5:16-17; John 15:6; Catechism of the Catholic Church, # 1853; et al.

[32] Heb 10:26

[33]Exodus 20:2-17; Leviticus 19:3, 11-18; Deuteronomy 5:1-33; Ps 86:11; Ps 119:30; Mt 22:16; Mk 12:14; Jn 14:6; 2 Cor 4:2; et al.

[34] Galatians 5:19-20; 1 Corinthians 6:9-10; 1 John 5:16-17; John 15:6; Catechism of the Catholic Church, # 1853; et al.

[35] “Summa”, 1st Part of the 2nd Part, Q 109 Article 8

[36] Is 1:19; Lk 2:51; Acts 6:7; 2 Cor 2:9; 2 Cor 7:15; 2 Cor 10:5; et al.

[37] Gal 5:19

[38] "Love and Responsibility", Karol Wojtyla, 1960, reprinted 1981, Ignatius Press.

[39] Dt 7: 9; 1 Kings 8: 23; 1 Kings 10: 9; 2 Chron. 6: 14; Ps. 42: 8; Ps. 98: 3; Jonah 4: 2; Micah 6: 8; Zeph. 3: 17; Rom. 8: 39; 1 Cor. 2: 9, 1 Cor. 8: 3; Eph 2: 4; 2 Thes. 1: 3; James 1:2; 1 Jn 2: 5; 1 Jn 3: 1; 1 Jn 4: 8; 1 Jn 4: 9; et al.

[40] Gen 14:18-19

[41] Prov 31:25

[42] Gen 5:22; Gen 6:2

[43] Ex 28:2

[44] "Love and Responsibility", Karol Wojtyla, 1960, reprinted 1981, Ignatius Press.

[45] Ps 13:5; Ps 40: 10; Ps 40:16; Ps 69:13; 1 Thes 5:8; et al.

[46] "Trial, Tribulation and Triumph: Before During and After Antichrist", Desmond Birch, Queenship Publishing, 1997; et al.

[47] "RFID: Big Brother in small packages", CNET.COM, Jan 13 2006, Declan McCullagh, internet news source.

[48] "Surveillance company implants RFID chips in workers", Paul Miller, Endgadget.com, Feb 13 2006, internet news article, see http://www.engadget.com/2006/02/13/surveillance-company-implants-rfid-chips-in-workers/

[49] "Implant ID Chips", San Diego Union-Tribune, March 12 2006, Jonathon Sidener, San Diego.

[50] "Future looks Rosier for RFID chips", CNN-International, March 10 2006, cnn.com, internet news source.

[51] Rev 13:17

[52] 1 Tim 3:15, et al.

[53] 2 Tim 3:1-9; 2 Tim 4:1-8; et al.

[54] "On Christ and the Antichrist", St Hippolytus, 2nd Century AD; "Against Heresies", V. 28, St Irenaeus, 2nd Century AD; Misc. writings of John Cardinal Henry Newman, 19th Century; et al.

[55] Ezra 5:8, Ezra 6:12-13; Ezra 7:12; et al.

[56] Rev 13:18; et al.

[57] Acts 26:23; 2 Cor 4:4; et al.

[58] "On Grace of Christ", Book 1 & 2, St Augustine, circa AD 470.

[59] Jn 5:24; "Veritas Splendor"; et al.

[60] 2 Cor 12:9

[61] Ex 15:26; Ex 19:19; Dt 4:33; Dt 5:24; Dt 5:25-26; Dt 18:16; Dt 26:7; Judges 21:2, et al.

[62] "Summa Theologica", 1st Part of the 2nd Part, Q 58, A 1, St Thomas Aquinas, circa AD 1227; et al.

[63] "Populorum Progressio", Pope Paul VI, 1967, Rome; "Pacem in Terris", Pope John XXIII, 1963, Rome; "Gaudium et Spec", "Pastoral Council of the Church in the Modern World", Second Vatican Council, 1965, Rome; "Address to the UN General Assembly", Pope John Paul II, October 7 1979, New York; "Dominum et Vivificantem", Pope John Paul II, 1986, Rome, et al.

[64] "Divine Mercy in my Soul"; "Dives in Misericordia"; et al.

[65] Acts 26:23; 2 Cor 4:4; 2 Cor 4:6; Eph 5:14; 2 Tim 1:10

[66] Ps 86: 11; Ps 119:30; Mt 22:16; Lk 20:21; Jn 10:1; Jn 14:6

[67] Is 43:14; Rom 9:16; Rom 11:31; Rom 21:1; 2 Cor 4:1; Jude 1:21; "Divine Mercy in my soul"; et al.

[68] Acts 11:18; 2 Cor 9:13; Gal 1:24; Jn 13:34; Jn 13:35; Rom 12:10; Rom 13:8; Gal 5:13; Eph 4:2; Heb 10:24; 1 Peter 1:22; 1 Peter 3:8; 1 Peter 5:14

[69] Ex 22:3; et al.

[70] Mt 15:19; Mk 7:21; et al.

[71] 2 Peter 1:12-21

[72] "Dives in Misericordia"; "Veritas Splendor"; et al.

[73] Jude 1: 20-25



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[i] "As they were looking on, so we too gaze on his wounds as he hangs. We see his blood as he dies. We see the price offered by the redeemer, touch the scars of his resurrection. He bows his head, as if to kiss you. His heart is made bare open, as it were, in love to you. His arms are extended that he may embrace you. His whole body is displayed for your redemption. Ponder how great these things are. Let all this be rightly weighed in your mind: as he was once fixed to the cross in every part of his body for you, so he may now be fixed in every part of your soul." + St Augustine of Hippo, AD 470

[ii] "eis en prosopon kai mian hpostasin", the Council of Chalcedon AD 451; 2 Corinthians 9:4; 11:17; Hebrews 1:3-3:14

[iii] "We venerate the cross as a safeguard of faith, as the strengthening of hope and the throne of love. It is the sign of mercy, the proof of forgiveness, the vehicle of grace and the banner of peace. We venerate the cross, because it has broken down our pride, shattered our envy, redeemed our sin and atoned for our punishment. The cross of Christ is the door to heaven, the key to paradise, the downfall of the devil, the uplifting of mankind, the consolation of our imprisonment, the prize for our freedom. The cross was the hope of the patriarchs, the promise of the prophets, the triumph of kings and the ministry of priests. Tyrants are convicted by the cross and the mighty ones defeated, it lifts up the miserable and honors the poor. The cross is the end of darkness, the spreading of light, the flight of death, the ship of life and the kingdom of salvation. Whatever we accomplish for God, whatever we succeed and hope for, is the fruit of our veneration of the cross. By the cross Christ draws everything to him. It is the kingdom of the Father, the scepter of the Son and the seal of the Holy Spirit, a witness to the total Trinity." + St Rupert, 12 century AD.



[iv] "Our understanding, which is enlightened by the Spirit of truth, should receive with purity and freedom of heart the glory of the cross as it shines in heaven and on earth. It should see with inner vision the meaning of the Lord's words when he spoke of the imminence of his passion: The hour has come for the Son of Man to be glorified. Afterward he said: Now my soul is troubled, and what am I to say? Father, save me from this hour. But it was for this I came to this hour. Father, glorify your Son. When the voice of the Father came from heaven, saying, I have glorified him, and will glorify him again, Jesus said in reply to those around him: It was not for me that this voice spoke, but for you. Now is the judgment of the world, now will the prince of this world be cast out. And I, if I am lifted up from the earth, will draw all things to myself. How marvelous the power of the cross; how great beyond all telling the glory of the passion. Here is the judgment-seat of the Lord, the condemnation of the world, the supremacy of Christ crucified. Lord, you drew all things to yourself so that the devotion of all peoples everywhere might celebrate, in a sacrament made perfect and visible, what was carried out in the one temple of Judea under obscure foreshadowings. Now there is a more distinguished order of Levites, a greater dignity for the rank of elders, a more sacred anointing for the priesthood, because your cross is the source of all blessings, the cause of all graces. Through the cross the faithful receive strength from weakness, glory from dishonor, life from death. The different sacrifices of animals are no more: the one offering of your body and blood is the fulfillment of all the different sacrificial offerings, for you are the true Lamb of God: you take away the sins of the world. In yourself you bring to perfection all mysteries, so that, as there is one sacrifice in place of all other sacrificial offerings, there is also one kingdom gathered from all peoples. Dearly beloved, let us then acknowledge what Saint Paul, the teacher of the nations, acknowledged so exultantly: This is a saying worthy of trust, worthy of complete acceptance: Christ Jesus came into this world to save sinners. God's compassion for us is all the more wonderful because Christ died, not for the righteous or the holy but for the wicked and the sinful, and, though the divine nature could not be touched by the sting of death, he took to himself, through his birth as one of us, something he could offer on our behalf. The power of his death once confronted our death. In the words of Hosea the prophet: Death, I shall be your death; grave, I shall swallow you up. By dying he submitted to the laws of the underworld; by rising again he destroyed them. He did away with the everlasting character of death so as to make death a thing of time, not of eternity. As all die in Adam, so all will be brought to life in Christ. " + St. Leo the Great, circa 5th Century.

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